Tuesday, April 5, 2011

E1b1b1a2 (V13) Early migration from the Middle East to Europe

The apparent movement of E-M78 lineages from the Near East to Europe, and their subsequent rapid expansion, make its E-V13 sub-clade a particularly interesting subject for speculation about ancient human migrations.
The distribution of E-V13 in Europe: Early migration from the Middle East to Europe
The haplogroup J2b (J-M12) has also frequently been discussed in connection with V13, as a haplogroup with a seemingly very similar distribution and pre-history.(There is no consensus regarding the circumstances or timing of its evolution.)
Cruciani et al. (2007) says there were at least four major demographic events which have been envisioned for this geographic area:

The "post-Last Glacial Maximum expansion (about 20 kya)"
The "Younger Dryas-Holocene reexpansion (about 12 kya)"
The "population growth associated with the introduction of agricultural practices (about 8 kya)"
The "development of Bronze technology (about 5kya)"

The distribution and diversity of V13 are often thought to represent the introduction of early farming technologies, during the Neolithic expansion, into Europe by way of the Balkans. However, a wider range of possibilities exists, Battaglia et al. (2008), for example, propose that the E-M78* lineage ancestral to all modern E-V13 men moved rapidly out of a Southern Egyptian homeland, in the wetter conditions of the early Holocene; arrived in Europe with only Mesolithic technologies and then only subsequently integrated with Neolithic cultures which arrived later in the Balkans.
E-V13 is in any case often described in population genetics as one of the components of the European genetic composition which shows a relatively recent link of populations from the Middle East, entering Europe and presumably associated with bringing new technologies.As such, it is also sometimes remarked that it is a relatively recent genetic movement out of Africa into Eurasia, and has been described as "a signal for a separate late-Pleistocene migration from Africa to Europe over the Sinai ... which is not manifested in mtDNA haplogroup distributions".
After its initial entry in Europe, there was then a dispersal from the Balkans into the rest of Europe. Also for this movement, a wide range of possibilities exists. Battaglia et al. (2008) suggest that the E-V13 sub-clade of E-M78 originated in situ in Europe, and propose that the first major dispersal of E-V13 from the Balkans may have been in the direction of the Adriatic Sea with the Neolithic Impressed Ware culture often referred to as Impressa or Cardial. In contrast, Cruciani et al. (2007) suggest that the movement out of the Balkans may have been more recent than 5300 years ago. The authors suggest that this might have been associated with an in situ population increase in the Balkans associated with the Balkan Bronze age, rather than an actual migratory movement of peoples from western Asia. They consider that "the dispersion of the E-V13 and J-M12 haplogroups seems to have mainly followed the river waterways connecting the southern Balkans to north-central Europe". Peričic et al. (2005) propose the Vardar-Morava-Danube rivers as a possible route of Neolithic dispersal into central Europe. Bird (2007) proposes a still more recent dispersal out of the Balkans, around the time of the Roman empire. Wikipedia-E1b1b1a2

Friday, April 1, 2011

Shalom ben Amram ben Yitzhaq, 1922-2004 : Samaritan High Priest E1b1b1-a3

Shalom ben Amram ben Isaac (Shalom ben Amram ben Yitzhaq, 1922-2004) Saloum Cohen
- Samaritan high priest in 2001-2004

Modern Samaritan priests, including Shalom ben Amram, are descended from Tsedaka ben Tabia Ha'abta'ai (1624-1650), who was a descendant of Ithamar (Line of Ithamar), the fourth son of Aaron.

Shalom ben Amram haplotype ben Yitzhak presented in this paper «Maternal and Paternal Lineages of the Samaritan Isolate: Mutation Rates and Time to Most Recent Common Male Ancestor» (B. Bonn 'e-Tamir et al., 2003) http://hammerlab.biosci.arizona.edu/
belongs to Y-haplogroup E1b1b1a3 *

The Samaritans (Hebrew: שומרונים‎ Shomronim, Arabic: السامريون‎ as-Sāmariyyūn) are an ethnoreligious group of the Levant. Religiously, they are the adherents to Samaritanism, an Abrahamic religion closely related to Judaism. Based on the Samaritan Torah, Samaritans claim their worship is the true religion of the ancient Israelites prior to the Babylonian Exile, preserved by those who remained in the Land of Israel, as opposed to Judaism, which they assert is a related but altered and amended religion brought back by the exiled returnees.

Ancestrally, they claim descent from a group of Israelite inhabitants from the tribes of Joseph and Levi (another Benjamin tribe branch), who have connections to ancient Samaria from the beginning of the Babylonian Exile up to the Samaritan Kingdom of Baba Rabba. The Samaritans, however, derive their name not from this geographical designation, but rather from the Hebrew term Shamerim שַמֶרִים, "Keepers [of the Law]".

In the Talmud, a central post-exilic religious text of Judaism, their claim of ancestral origin is disputed, and in those texts they are called Cutheans (Hebrew: כותים‎, Kuthim), allegedly from the ancient city of Cuthah (Kutha), geographically located in what is today Iraq. Modern genetics has suggested some truth to both the claims of the Samaritans and Jewish accounts in the Talmud.

Although historically they were a large community — up to more than a million in late Roman times, then gradually reduced to several tens of thousands up to a few centuries ago — their unprecedented demographic shrinkage has been a result of various historical events, including most notably the bloody repression of the Third Samaritan Revolt (529 AD) against the Byzantine Christian rulers and the mass conversion to Islam in the Early Muslim period of Palestine.

According to their tally, as of November 1, 2007, there were 712 Samaritans living almost exclusively in two localities, one in Kiryat Luza on Mount Gerizim near the city of Nablus in the West Bank, and the other in the Israeli city of Holon. There are, however, followers of various backgrounds adhering to Samaritan traditions outside of Israel especially in the United States.

With the revival of Hebrew as a spoken language by Jewish immigrants to Israel, and its growth and officialization following the establishment of the state, most Samaritans today speak Modern Hebrew, especially in Israel. As with their counterpart Muslim, Christian, Druze and other Israeli religious communities, the most recent spoken mother tongue of the Samaritans was Arabic, and it still is for those in the West Bank city of Nablus. For liturgical purposes, Samaritan Hebrew, Samaritan Aramaic, and Samaritan Arabic are used, all of which are written in the Samaritan alphabet, a variant of the Old Hebrew alphabet, distinct from the so-called square script "Hebrew alphabet" of Jews and Judaism, which is a stylized form of the Aramaic alphabet. Hebrew, and later Aramaic, were languages in use by the Israelites of Judea prior to the Roman exile, and beyond. (via Wikipedia)

Saturday, February 19, 2011

E1b1b1-M35.1: DNA of Albert Einstein and Barack Obama.

Do Albert Einstein and Barack Obama have the same DNA ? I guess if you go back 60,000 years we all have the same DNA. We are One Family. We need to start living like that.

12% of Spanish Jews are E1b1b, 20% of Eastern European Jews (the ones who migrated east after they moved northward through Italy) are also E1b1b.

Albert Einstein was from the 20% of Eastern European Jews and belongs to Haplogroup E1b1b

Barack Obama's dad is a Luo-Nilotic from East Africa / Kenya.


Nilotic people have been investigated in studies of both autosomal DNA and Y-DNA and carry predominantly haplogroup E1b1 .
Wood et al. (2005) tested samples of three Nilotic populations (Maasai from Kenya, Luo from Kenya, and Alur from the DRC) as part of a broad survey of human Y-chromosome DNA variation in Africa and found that the predominant Y-DNA haplogroup in each of the three populations was different, with E1b1b1-M35 being the most frequent among Maasai (13/26 = 50%, including 4/26 = 15% E1b1b1a-M78 and 9/26 = 35% E1b1b1-M35(xE1b1b1a-M78, E1b1b1b-M81)), E1b1a-P1 being the most frequent among Luo (6/9 = 67%, including 4/9 E1b1a7-M191 and 2/9 E1b1a-P1(xE1b1a7-M191)



Archaeological research indicates modern man first appeared in Kenya and as a result, the country with its East African neighbours is almost certainly considered the cradle of mankind.

E1b1b1-M35 The Wright Brothers Y-DNA

The Wright Brothers of the United States belonged to Y-DNA haplogroup E1b1b1, subclade E1b1b1a2 (V13). They were supposedly descended from Robert Wright of Brook Hall, Essex, England. Look at Wright Dna Project

DYS - 393-390-19-391-385A-385B-426-388-439-389I-392-389II
Alleles 13 - 24 -13 -10 - 16 - 18 - 11 -12 - 12 - 13 - 11 - 29


The Wright brothers, Orville (August 19, 1871 – January 30, 1948) and Wilbur (April 16, 1867 – May 30, 1912), were two Americans who are generally credited with inventing and building the world's first successful airplane and making the first controlled, powered and sustained heavier-than-air human flight, on December 17, 1903. In the two years afterward, the brothers developed their flying machine into the first practical fixed-wing aircraft. Although not the first to build and fly experimental aircraft, the Wright brothers were the first to invent aircraft controls that made fixed-wing powered flight possible.

Friday, February 18, 2011

E1b1b1 Jewish haplogroup

E1b1b1 (M35) Migration through Jericho

According to Wikipedia :The linguistic group and E1b1b1 may have dispersed together from the region of origin of this language family. Amongst populations with an Afro-Asiatic speaking history, a significant proportion of Jewish male lineages are E1b1b1 (E-M35). Haplogroup E1b1b1, which accounts for approximately 18% to 20% of Ashkenazi and 8.6% to 30% of Sephardi Y-chromosomes, appears to be one of the major founding lineages of the Jewish population.

And the Museum of Learning : The E1b1b1 haplogroup formerly known as E3b1 has been observed in all Jewish groups worldwide. It is considered to be the second most prevalent haplogroup among the Jewish population outside of the J haplogroups. According to one non-peer reviewed paper it has also been observed in moderate numbers among individuals from Ashkenazi, Sephardic and Samaritan communities having traditions of descending from the tribe of Levi, suggesting that the E1b1b1 men claiming to be Levites may have existed in Israel before the Diaspora of 70 CE.

And Loftin DNA Testing : Previously it had been assumed that the Haplogroup E1b1b1 (E-M35) "arose in East Africa" and the Haplogroup was "often incorrectly described as “African,” leaving a misimpression regarding the origin and complex history of this Haplogroup". According to the International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG) and National Geographic's Genographic Project, E1b1b1 may have arisen instead in the Near East or the Middle East and then expanded into the Mediterranean with the spread of agriculture. E-M35, the most current group of E1b1b1 includes the individuals with no known sub-clade mutations (who are therefore said to be in the "ancestral state" referred to as E1b1b1 or E-M35).

Haplogroup E1b1b1 (M35) Y-chromosome DNA Testing for Borghese

National Geographic Genographic Project Y-DNA Test results:

The designations for all 12 loci examined for this purpose are listed here, along with the Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) outcome for each.

Ancient, Southern Italian Borghese Family Y-DNA (not Roman)